- "Once again I began to feel the obligations of power, to deal justice fairly to all.
One day my people would know me again for their lord.
But the vampires who were traitors to their kind would know me first of all."
Blood Omen 2 is the fourth game in the Legacy of Kain series and the second in the Blood Omen arc of the series. Blood Omen 2 is the sequel to Blood Omen: Legacy of Kain, following Kain's story in the centuries after the Collapse of the Pillars. Chronologically, the game is set in an era between the events of Blood Omen: Legacy of Kain and Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver in the altered timeline created by Soul Reaver 2's final Paradoxes. In a notable departure from Blood Omen's two-dimensional hack-and-slash gameplay, Blood Omen 2 was in the Action-Adventure genre, similar to the games of the Soul Reaver arc. It was developed by Crystal Dynamics and published by Eidos Interactive and was released on the PlayStation 2, Xbox, GameCube, and Microsoft Windows throughout 2002.
Setting and story
see also Era following Blood Omen
Blood Omen 2 revealed that after being left as the last Vampire in Nosgoth and causing the Collapse of the Pillars at the end of Blood Omen, Kain set out to begin his conquest of Nosgoth. Unable to yet create Vampires of his own, he was assisted by the mysteriously resurrected vampire Vorador, who allied himself with Kain and agreed to assist in the revival of the Vampire race, personally siring the first of a new race of vampires  which would make up the soldiers of Kain's vampire army. The rise of the vampires apparently provoked the fear of the humans and united by a new leader, the mysterious Sarafan Lord ; the humans formed their own army, the Sarafan (based on the legendary vampire-hunting crusades of the original Sarafan brotherhood) to combat the vampires and using powerful Glyph magic brought forth by the Sarafan Lord, the Sarafan were able to impede Kain's ascent to power.
For some time, the two powers would clash in a war for control of Nosgoth; until the battle lines were drawn for a fateful battle outside Meridian, two centuries after the pillars collapse. With Kain's forces advancing upon Meridian, The Sarafan Lord drew up several plans to ensure the destruction of the vampire army; recovering the Nexus Stone to give him immunity to the power of Kain's Soul Reaver sword and organising the betrayal of Kain's lieutenant Sebastian (as well as banishing Kain's champion Magnus to the Eternal Prison). When the battle commenced, the ambush set up by Sebastian was triggered and Kain was isolated from the rest of the vampire army and channeled into single-combat with the Sarafan Lord.
Unable to use the power of the Soul Reaver against him, Kain was defeated by the Sarafan Lord and thrown off a cliff to his apparent death with the Sarafan Lord recovering the Soul Reaver. Ultimately, the vampire army was routed by Glyph magic and the Sarafan were able to conquer Nosgoth themselves, in the guise of the protecting the populace from vampires. Kain however, was not dead and his body was recovered by the Cabal (the vampire resistance) who nurtured the "barest thread of life" left in Kain. By two-hundred years later the situation facing the vampire race had become desperate enough for them to revive Kain, despite his feared ambitions.
SettingEra following Blood Omen, four hundred years after the Collapse of the Pillars and two centuries after the battle of Meridian; when Kain awakened from his 'slumber' in the city of Meridian. The majority of the story takes place in the hitherto unknown capital of Nosgoth, Meridian (suspected to be the capital of the Sarafan-run Nosgoth only). The city has undergone a dramatic 'Industrial Revolution', due to Gylph magic and steam technologies in the era, leading to the city becoming a vast, developed and diverse "labyrinth", with large individual districts. A small portion of the story takes place outside of Meridian in nearby areas such as the wilderness of the Canyons as well an in the enigmatic Eternal Prison and the Hylden City[Blood Omen 2].
The story's chronological placement is not in the original timeline. Instead it is set in the new timeline created by the climactic paradox induced by Kain and Raziel at the end of Soul Reaver 2. Without those events, the plot of Blood Omen 2 could not have taken place. Essentially, the story of the game are part of the new memories the older Kain received at the end of Soul Reaver 2 as the timeline changed.
see also:Blood Omen 2 Chapters (Levels)Blood Omen 2's main story began with Kain's awakening in the Slums of Meridian. With his memory shattered and most of his former powers lost, Kain was taken to recover his strength and train by Cabal Vampire Umah. Once he had completed the training, Umah took Kain to meet the leader of the Cabal at their headquarters at Sanctuary, but as they attempted to cross the bridge to the Lower City, they were separated by a Ward Gate and Kain was forced to make his way to Sanctuary on his own, using the aid of a number of Cabal Contacts.
When Kain arrived at Sanctuary he met the leader of the vampire resistance, revealed to be his old mentor Vorador. Whilst Vorador was briefing Kain on his plans, their meeting was interrupted by an injured Cabal Vampire who told them that Umah had discovered something of significance on a mission to the Industrial Quarter, but had been captured and taken to the Sarafan Keep for execution before she was able to reveal her information. Sent to rescue Umah and recover her information, Kain met with the Bishop of Meridian to gain access to the Sarafan Keep where he was able to free Umah. Back at Sanctuary, Umah revealed that in the Industrial Quarter she had discovered the Nexus Stone and learning of the stone's power to negate the power of the Soul Reaver, Kain set off to retrieve it.
Infiltrating the Industrial Quarter, Kain found the Nexus Stone and killed traitor vampire Sebastian to retrieve it. However as he died, Sebastian told Kain of an ancient Device buried beneath Meridian that Sarafan Lord would use to destroy the vampires. At Vorador's suggestion Kain travelled to meet the Seer in the Canyons and when confronted by Kain she agreed to help him; teleporting him to the Device and giving him the power to enter it. Within the structure Kain discovered a deformed The Beast imprisoned behind Ward Gates and drained to feed the Device. Eager to see its destruction, the Beast directed Kain to find the (Hylden) Builder of the Device at the timeless Eternal Prison.
Discovering the Builder and finding from him that the Device was nearly complete, but could be rendered useless by poisoning the Mass inside it with Hylden Blood, Kain returned to the Device; but before he descended into the depths he was warned by the Beast about the dangers ahead, revealing that his captors were the Hylden (a race long banished from the Material Realm), that they pulled the strings of the Sarafan and that they were led the Sarafan Lord. Descending into the Device and fighting off the Hylden, Kain was able to poison the Mass with the Builder's Blood, killing it and ensuring the Device was not used.
When Kain returned to the upper chambers of the Device, Kain found that the Beast had been restored to his true form - that of Ancient vampire Janos Audron. Discussing the implications of the Hylden conspiracy and how they had entered the Material Realm, Janos revealed that the Sarafan Lord had built the Hylden Gate to breach through the dimensions, but that they were still bound to the Demon Realm and the gate therefore sustained their existence. Returning to Sanctuary, the vampires drew up a plan to assault the Hylden City and close the Hylden Gate but found that the Hylden City itself was protected by a magic shield which prevented teleportation, thus Kain and Umah were sent to the Wharves to board a ship to the Hylden City and de-activate the Shield Generator.
At the Wharves, there would be dispute between Kain and Umah and Umah, fearing Kain's ambitions; turned on Kain and stole the Nexus Stone from him. Shortly afterward, Kain would catch up with Umah and retrieve the Nexus Stone, killing her for her betrayal and boarding the ship to the Hylden City by himself. Exploring the Hylden City, Kain was able to de-activate the Shield Generator, allowing Janos and Vorador to teleport in; however an attack by the Sarafan Lord led to both of the Elder Vampires being injured.
As Janos remained to tend to Vorador, he told Kain that to close the Hylden gate he would have to cast the Nexus Stone into it; killing the Hylden in the Material Realm. Kain set off for his final confrontation with the Hylden General and at the Hylden Gate, Kain confronted the Hylden Lord, but a stalemate ensued. Breaking the stalemate, Kain gave up the protection of the Nexus Stone to ensure the Hylden Gate would be closed and all the Hylden would eventually perish. As Kain and the Sarafan Lord continued to fight, Janos intervened, allowing Kain to retrieve the Soul Reaver blade at the cost of Janos being cast into the Demon Realm. Without the Nexus Stone, The Hylden General was no match for Kain and the Soul Reaver and was easily dispatched, leaving Kain to ponder Umah's betrayal and his plans for Empire[Blood Omen 2].
Other Groups and Factions
- Kain: The protagonist of the Blood Omen 2. The story follows the young Kain in his rise to power after the collapse of the Pillars as Kain attempts to conquer Nosgoth with a Vampire Army and is defeated by the mysterious Sarafan Lord at the battle of Meridian. After two centuries in a comatose state, Kain was revived by the Cabal as an agent of the vampire resistance, but he fully intended to follow his own agenda and seek revenge however possible.
- Umah: A vampire and lieutenant of the Cabal. She guides Kain through the first part of the game, reminding him of his vampiric abilities, and introducing him (and the player) to Meridian [Blood Omen 2].
- The Sarafan Lord: The antagonist of Blood Omen 2 and final boss[Blood Omen 2]. A Hylden general who masterminded the Hylden conspiracy to topple the pillars and return to the Material Realm. In the guise of the 'Sarafan Lord', the Hylden General formed theSarafan which clashed with and eventually defeated Kain's Vampire Army at the Battle of Meridian. In the two centuries since, the Sarafan conquered Nosgoth and the Sarafan Lord became unquestioned dictator.
- Vorador: Former mentor of Kain, Vorador was originally killed in Blood Omen, but was resurrected prior to the events of Blood Omen 2. Vorador allied with Kain agreeing to sire a new race of vampires to provide the troops of Kain's Vampire Army. With the defeat of the army to the Sarafan, Vorador went into hiding and set up the Cabal, the vampires resistance to the Sarafan rule.
- Janos Audron: The last of the Ancient vampires. Janos was a vital part of the Hylden conspiracy to topple the Pillars, open the Hylden Gate and return to the Material Realm. With this accomplished, Janos was enslaved to power the Device  and this has caused him to devolve into a huge beast, who aided Kain in his attempts to destroy the Device. When the Mass was killed and the Device rendered useless, Janos was able to regain normal winged appearance[Blood Omen 2].
- Faustus: A 'Traitor Vampire' and former legionnaire of Kain's Vampire Army who sold himself to the Sarafan at the conclusion of the Battle of Meridian. Faustus is the first Boss in the game, encountered in Chapter 2: The Smuggler's Den[Blood Omen 2].
- Marcus: A vampire with powerful psychic abilities who has sided with the Sarafan Order. The second 'traitor vampire' and boss in the game, he is encountered in Chapter 4:the Upper City when after some harsh words Kain and Marcus engaged in a race to find the Bishop of Meridian. At the end of the chapter, Kain was able to confront Marcus in Meridian Cathedral[Blood Omen 2].
- Sebastian: The greatest of the Sarafan Lord's vampire generals, Sebastian was originally one of the leaders of Kain's Vampire Army, but he betrayed Kain shortly before the Battle of Meridian, arranging the ambush that would cost Kain the war. Kain initially met Sebastian in Chapter 3: The Lower City, but did not identify him until he found him protecting the Nexus Stone in the Industrial Quarter. Sebastian was fought by Kain as the third boss character in the game, confronted to gain the Nexus Stone at the end of Chapter 6:The Industrial Quarter[Blood Omen 2].
- Magnus: A mad vampire in the Eternal Prison. Magnus was a champion in Kain's Vampire Army but he went missing on the eve of the Battle of Meridian, as he attempted to assassinate the Sarafan Lord and was sent to the Eternal Prison. When he returend, Kain encountered the insane and mutilated Magnus in Chapter 8: the Eternal Prison, where he acted as the fourth boss[Blood Omen 2].
- The Seer: An enigmatic soothsayer that lived in Canyons outside Meridian. Initially the only one who could provide information about the Device, in Chapter 7: The Canyons, Kain gained the Dark Gift, Telekinesis from the Seer and she teleported him to the Device[Blood Omen 2]. Later developer information elaborated that she is "an extremely powerful and mysterious Hylden".
- Meridian: Capital of the Sarafan Nosgoth, a large industrial City with many distinct districts; most of the story of Blood Omen 2 takes place in Meridian[Blood Omen 2].
- The Canyons: Rocky Wilderness outside of Meridian.
- The Eternal Prison: A mysterious, horrifying and 'timeless' prison where Magnus and the Builder were imprisoned[Blood Omen 2]. Apparently nearby Meridian.
- The Hylden City: an island fortress in the Great Southern Sea and base of the Hylden incursion into the Material Realm. Site of the Hylden Gate and Shield Generator[Blood Omen 2].
Districts of Meridian
- The Slums: The oldest and most decrepit part of Meridan, where Kain is revived and trained[Blood Omen 2].
- The Smuggler's Den: Run-down part of the city, mainly populated by rogues and thieves[Blood Omen 2].
- The Lower City: Main residence of Meridian's lower class citizens, noitcably better maintained and guarded than previous areas[Blood Omen 2].
- The Upper City: Lavish and expensively decorated, the Upper City was the residence of Meridian's nobility and location of the Bishop's Manor and Meridian Cathedral[Blood Omen 2].
- The Sarafan Keep: Dominating fortress over-looking Meridian. Headquarters of the Sarafan and home of the Sarafan Lord.[Blood Omen 2]
- The Industrial Quarter: Industrial heartland of Meridian filled with factories and Industrial workers[Blood Omen 2].
- The Device: Ancient Hylden weapon buried deep beneath Meridian; the Device was hidden inside a distinctive building between the Upper and Lower Cities[Blood Omen 2].
- The Wharves: A heavily guarded waterfront fortress that controlled all trade and travel to and from Meridian.
Blood Omen 2 featured a "Head's-Up Display" (HUD) that was centred around a stylised display in the upper-left corner of the screen, which relayed information on the most vital gameplay mechanics. The top-left circular dial displayed an icon for the selected Dark Gift and dropping down below this were two vials representing the level of Kain's Blood (health) and Lore. To the right of the circular dial, a pointed meter represented the level of Kain's Rage and an icon below this also indicated the currently equipped weapon and its status. An indicator planned for the distance and relative hostility of NPC and enemy characters is visible (between the Dark Gift indictaor and Rage meter) but disabled in the final game.
Basic Gameplay and EnvironmentThe gameplay featured in Blood Omen 2 was of the action-adventure genre and shared several common elements and gameplay mechanics with the Soul Reaver arc (and many other games in the genre). At the most basic level, the camera could be panned and moved (though to a lesser than the Soul Reaver games and lacking the discrete 'look' function) and Kain moved through the environment. Kain could further be negotiated through the environment by basic Jumping and Floating (which could extend a jump a short distance) and Kain could also grab onto edges to 'pull himself up' as well as climb Ladders. Kain's progress would also be 'saved' at automatically activated Checkpoints. Kain's main environmental danger in Blood Omen 2 (along with enemies) was the abundant natural resource Water, and the Sarafan-raised Ward gates, both of which burned Vampires[Blood Omen 2].
Kain could also interact with many objects and items in the environment (many of which glowed white or 'twinkled' indicating they could be used). Doors that glowed could be opened (except on rare occasions when locked), Blocks (including Glyph batteries) could be moved and a variety of Switches could be activated with various means and results (including Glyph magic applications, Explosive devices and Glyph seals). Weapons that could be picked up and corpses that could be fed from also 'twinkled' and glowed respectively. Several Dark Gifts also had environmental applications, with Kain able to jump further with Jump, control NPC's with Charm and activate Glyph seals with Telekinesis.
Blood Omen 2 continued the 'autoface' style combat mode introduced in Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver. Once in combat mode, Kain would lock onto the nearest enemy character (or NPC), automatically facing that enemy. Once autofaced, Kain could change targets, block (which filled his Rage) and dodge enemy attacks or attack himself using single strikes, combinations or grab attacks. 'Combat' Dark Gifts Fury, Berserk and Immolate could be used as an unblockable attack in combat when Kain's Rage suffieciently filled, though other Dark Gifts also had combat applications. Unlike other games in the series, Blood Omen 2 did not have a Waver state; though sufficiently weakened 'downed ' enemies and NPC's would attempt to crawl away (and could be struck with special final blow), they were required to be completely dead before they could be fed from to fill Kain's Blood vial.
Items and Power-UpsIn Blood Omen 2 the only true 'quest item' (that could be picked up, carried and later used) was the Nexus Stone, which Kain found in Chapter 6: The Industrial Quarter and wore on his chest until using it to close the Hylden Gate (in a scripted cutscene) in thefinal boss battle in Chapter 11:The Hylden City. Besides this, no objects can be picked up and carried aside from weapons, however other environmental objects could be classed as "obtainable objects" or 'power-ups' and could be 'drained' and used immediately; these included Lore coffers and Weapon power chests (power-ups to Lore and Weapon power respectively) as well as Chained humans (effectively a free health power-up)[Blood Omen 2].
see also Dark Gifts (Blood Omen 2 Abilities)
Blood Omen 2, like Soul Reaver before it, featured a set of evolved vampire abilities - known as 'Dark Gifts' in Blood Omen 2. Kain began the game with two Dark Gifts, Mist and Fury and through the game Kain could obtain and use (to a lesser extent) the abilities of the 'traitor' vampires upon defeating them by 'absorbing their veins'. Each Dark Gift had a symbol which was visible in their respective character's health display during the boss battle with them[Blood Omen 2].
- Mist(available from outset): Allowed Kain to assume a mist form in mist-filled areas, becoming virtually invisible and enabling Stealth kills.
- Fury (available from outset): Allowed Kain to perform a single unblockable attack when his Rage was sufficiently filled.
- Jump (gained from Faustus in Chapter 2): Allowed Kain to utilise a superhuman leap for an extended range jump.
- Berserk (gained from Sebastian in Chapter 6): Allowed Kain to perform flurry of unblockable strikes when his Rage was sufficiently filled.
- Telekinesis (gained from the Seer in Chapter 7): Allowed Kain to fire telekinetic projectiles and activate Glyph seals.
- Immolate (gained from Magnus in Chapter 8): Allowed Kain to use a fire based attack to cause instant death when his Rage was sufficiently filled.
- The Soul Reaver (gained from the Sarafan Lord in Chapter 11):While not a Dark Gift as such, this powerful unbreakable weapon is only gained during the battle with the Sarafan Lord and acts as his interface symbol throughout the fight[Blood Omen 2].
Weapons and Attire
In Blood Omen 2, Kain could pick up and wield a variety of weapons in addition to attacking 'unarmed' with his claws. These weapons could be found on the floor of certain levels, or in the hands of enemies and used upon their deaths. Once picked up, an icon of the particular weapon would appear in the HUD beneath Kain's Rage meter. Weapons in Blood Omen 2 effectively determined the 'moveset' that Kain employed against enemies in combat, with similar weapons often having the same movesets; several 'heavy' weapons were also able to instantly kill enemies with a single grab. Weapon power could be enhanced with usage of weapon power chests, but all weapons, with the exception of the Soul Reaver, would wear (indicated by the weapon icon turning red) and eventually break, forcing Kain to change weapon. Kain could also change his attire, but this was done at scripted occasions and was largely beyond player control. Through cheats, Kain could also play through the game with the Iron Armor and Soul Reaver combination[Blood Omen 2].
Enemies, NPC's and Bosses
In Blood Omen 2, Kain could encounter a variety of enemies. In early chapters enemies were human criminals, though throughout the game, most enemy classes were Sarafan affiliated humans. Later chapters saw the introduction of several demon enemies and unique creatures as well as the debut of Hylden enemies. On two occasions, Kain was also attacked by 'unique' enemies (the Gunship and the Shield guardian), who were invulnerable to normal methods of attack[Blood Omen 2].
NPCsBlood Omen 2 continued Blood Omen's use of non-aggressive 'Non-Playable' Characters. NPC's, generally represented the common human populace of each area. NPC's would typically display a neutral attitude to Kain unless he targeted them, in which case they would respond with fear. Through the conversations of NPC's much information could be gleaned about the lives of Meridian's ordinary citizens[Blood Omen 2]. NPC's played a vital role in Blood Omen 2, allowing developers to show Kain's ruthless and powerful streak, when lacking major abilities, by the fearful reactions to Kain's aggression.
BossesIn Blood Omen 2, every few chapters (every two up to Chapter 8) Kain would face a boss encounter, generally (but not exclusively) with high-ranking Sarafan affiliated 'traitor vampires ' that had once been 'lieutenants' in Kain's vampire army. Kain would often be confronted at the end of a level (though several bosses offered brief 'preludes'). Once engaged in battle, the symbol of the vampires Dark Gift and a second blood vial (opposite Kain's in the HUD) would appear, indicating the health of the boss[Blood Omen 2]. Boss encounters in Blood Omen 2 returned to the puzzle-style originated in Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver and Boss battles were credited to a specific designer (Dellekamp Siefert) and were seen as testing ground of the crucial specific skills and applications of the Dark Gifts. After killing each boss Kain would absorb their veins gaining a version of their Dark Gift. The final boss battle against the unmasked Sarafan Lord at the Hylden Gate saw no Dark Gift given, though Kain would regain the Soul Reaver (which was represented in the Sarafan Lord's symbol along with a Hylden head)[Blood Omen 2].
Development and Cut Content
DevelopmentBlood Omen 2 initially entered development at some stage when Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver was still in production. Crystal Dynamics, seeing the untapped potential of the Kain character, organised a new development team (separate from the Soul Reaver development team) to create the project; intending to split the franchise into two distinct series (the Blood Omen and Soul Reaver arcs). Attempting to balance the expectations of the Blood Omen and Soul Reaver fans, it was decided to move the Blood Omen series into the 3D Action-Adventure genre  and a new game engine created, based on that used in Crystal Dynamics 'Mad Dash Racing'. The engine was built 'from the ground up' for Blood Omen 2, leading to a different feel to the Soul Reaver series, despite it sharing many gameplay mechanics.
Concerned about the weight of the story of the rest of the series and seeking to distinguish Blood Omen 2 from previous games, the game was set in a previously unexplored era, in a previously unexplored reigion in the South of Nosgoth, allowing the team to create unique environments for the game. Story considerations also influenced the development of Kain's 'amnesia', allowing the story to be revealed over the course of the game, rather than 'overloading' the player at the outset of the game. Many design problems were overcome by Kain's defeat and revival; It allowed the team to create a "worthy foe" in the Sarafan Lord and provide Kain with a personal motivation in his revenge and recovery of the Soul Reaver; explained the loss of abilities, allowing the team to develop their own; as well as explaining the differing look and feel and allowing for in-game player training.With Blood Omen 2 and Soul Reaver 2 in development simultaneously, the major aspects of the storyline crossover (much of which would not be resolved until Defiance, and in the case of Vorador's resurrection, remains unresolved) were discussed and consistentcy was maintained with the Soul Reaver 2 team's artwork, but aside from this there was little sharing of resources between the teams and it is unclear whether the full implications of Soul Reaver 2's timelines and paradoxes had been shared with the Blood Omen 2 team. Ultimately due to the apparently accelerated development of Soul Reaver 2, Blood Omen 2 would be released fourth in the series, after Soul Reaver 2.
The look of Blood Omen 2 was influenced the styles of Blood Omen and Soul Reaver, wanting to show some of the Soul Reaver era technologies "in full operation" and taking Blood Omen's medieval feel forward a few centuries, the team settled on a Victorian feel with traces of gothic and steam-punk (and built in an industrial revolution around the new Glyph magic technologies). Inspired by 'dark cities' in literature, films and real world European Capitals (Steve Ross explicitly acknowledges Dracula's Castle, the Batman films, The City of Lost Children, Victorian London and Paris), the Blood Omen 2 team decided to set the game within a large, expansive single city with a dark and brooding atmosphere.
In a situation similar to the (confirmed) development of Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver as standalone title Shifter, Blood Omen 2's development has persistently been linked to previous unfinished gaming projects that Lead Artist and Art Director Steve Ross had formerly worked upon. These projects; Chakan ( a 2001, Sega Dreamcast based sequel to Sega Genesis classic, Chakan: The Forever Man) and Sirens (a 1997, Quake-based PC game), both share similarities in artwork and storyline with Blood Omen 2, as well as several common themes. However unlike Shifter, the only confirmed link between the three projects thus far is the presence of artist Steve Ross on them. When questioned about the links, Ross indicated that "some of the themes are the same simply because they came from the same artist (me). As for the symbol I had completely forgotten about it being on one of the Chakan Sketches. I did about 20-30 full color concepts in 2 weeks and it was all kind of a blur". Neither Crystal Dynamics nor Eidos have officially commented further upon the apparent similarities between the games.
Cut ContentLike other games in the series, Blood Omen 2 contains much content that was removed or altered before final release. Much of this apparently occurred at the concept phase, with concept art including several locations (such as Valeholm) that appear not to have been realized beyond concept art and many 'alternate takes' on existing locations such as the Eternal Prison, as well as several abandoned enemy designs (including three dropped Hylden 'castes'). By far the biggest change seems to have been in the genre of the game, originally intended to be much more Sneaking and stealth orientated, the game was re-focused upon Combat at some stage in development for unexplained reasons (leading to the disabling of an 'NPC disposition' dot in the HUD). Many rooms and areas seemed to have been removed due to technical concerns and glitches and a completion bonus, Bonus mode, exists but is not implemented in the final game. Other removed content includes a dropped weapon - the Leaf-Bladed Sword, more talkative Eyeless wretches and Slaves (who would assist Kain), various removed and altered dialogue and many subtly different Dark Gifts.
Promotional Images and Wallpapers
Blood Omen 2 is generally seen as the poorest of the Legacy of Kain games. Critics consistently rated the game at around an 'average' 70% and even amongst fans it was the least well received, with many criticizing character portrayals and mannerisms, frequent glitches and bugs and poor lip-synching. Blood Omen 2 also seemed to suffer from the development teams intent to separate from the rest of the series, with many feeling that it was a 'spin-off' of the Legacy of Kain series rather than a true addition. Despite this, Blood Omen 2 sold relatively well (well enough to earn a re-release as part of Sony's Greatest Hits program)  and remains enjoyable for many.
- Like Soul Reaver 2, the official naming of Blood Omen 2 is a matter of some dispute. Official sites and production materials list many variants of the title including "Blood Omen 2: Legacy of Kain", "Legacy of Kain: Blood Omen 2", "The Legacy of Kain series: Blood Omen 2", "Blood Omen 2: The Legacy of Kain series" and simply "Blood Omen 2". Promotional images and materials perhaps make the distinction clearer, giving the "The Legacy of Kain series" title as a separate component of the logo for each game which can be moved around in relation to the game title and does not have a colon. These suggest that the "Legacy of Kain" or "The Legacy of Kain series" component is being used as an umbrella term to build a brand identity for the separate series, while "Blood Omen 2" is the official title - this is also how the titles are stylised on the spines of the games themselves. In comparison Blood Omen: Legacy of Kain, Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver and Legacy of Kain: Defiance are nearly always referred to with the titles in a specific order with a colon and these specific titles are also present on the spines of each game.
- The release of Blood Omen 2 was accompanied by an official game guide published by the 'Prima Games' division of Random Houe publishing. Which contined tips, guides and a number of other extraneous materials related to Blood Omen 2.[Blood Omen 2 strategy guide]
See also (External Links)
- Blood Omen 2 Official Site - Story (preserved at Dark Chronicle)
- Blood Omen 2 Official Site - Humans (preserved at Dark Chronicle)
- Blood Omen 2 Official Site - Creatures (preserved at Dark Chronicle)
- Blood Omen 2 Official Site - Vampires (preserved at Dark Chronicle)
- Blood Omen 2 Designer Diary #1 at GameSpot (by Steve Ross, Bret Robbins and Mike Ellis)
- Blood Omen 2 Designer Diary #2 at GameSpot (by Mike Ellis)
- Blood Omen 2 Designer Diary #3 at GameSpot (by Paul Cazarez and Dellekamp Siefert)
- Blood Omen 2 Q&A at GameSpot (by Sam Newman)
- Blood Omen 2 Section at Steve Ross' Website
- Blood Omen 2 section at Dark Chronicle (by Marie Tryhorn).
- Blood Omen 2 Section at Nosgothic Realm (by Tenaya).
- Blood Omen 2 section at The Lost Worlds (by Ben Lincoln).
- Blood Omen 2: Legacy of Kain at Wikipedia.
- Video Walkthrough HD at Youtube
- Director: Glen A. Schofield
- Producer: Sam Newman
- Lead Programmer: Tom Desmarais
- Programmers: David Miles, Frank Hickman, David Modiano, Stanislav Baranov, John Lawrie
- Lead Designer: Mike Ellis
- Designers: Bret Robbins, Jeff Gregg, Rolef Conlan, Paul Cazarez
- Boss Designer: Dell Siefert
- Lead Artist/Art Director: Steve Ross
- Artists: Trevor Grimshaw, Charlie Lapp, Meagan Carabetta, Isabelle Lemay, Stephane Gaudette
- Kain Animator: James Houska
- Lead Animator: Tyrone Depts
- Senior Animator: Troi
- Animators: Terri Selting, Jeff Wilcox, Chris Stone
- Cinematics Animators: Eric Elliott, Jake S. Hughes, Chris Stone, Colin O'Connor, Spencer Hale, Scott Baker, Conant Fong
- Special Effects: Charlie Lapp, Ross Harris
- Additional Art: Phroilan Gardner
- Lead Engine Programmer: David Minogue
- Engine Programmers: John Pursey, Mark Hodges
- Additional Programming: Tim van Klooster, Jurjen Katsman, Dom Regan, Paul Taylor, Davor Mrkoci, Anne-Lise Hassenklover, Andrei Pokrovsky, Meilin Wong
- Story: Bret Robbins, Steve Ross
- Script: Bret Robbins, Carol Wolf
- Audio/Visual Manager: Greg Shaw
- Music Composition and Adaptive Audio Programming: Jim Hedges
- Sound Effects: Mike Peaslee, Greg Shaw
- Cinematic Sound: Kurt Harland, Kristoffer Larson
- Sound Effect Scripting: Samuel Villanueva, Mike Peaslee, Greg Shaw
- Voice Actors:
- Simon Templeman as Kain
- Earl Boen as the Sarafan Lord
- Liz Ward-Land as Umah and the Seer
- Paul Lukather as Vorador
- Nick Jameson as Sebastian
- Nick Guest as Marcus
- Philip Proctor as Faustus
- Rodger Bumpass as Magnus
- René Auberjonois as Janos Audron/the Beast
- Al Laurie as the Bishop
- Additional Voices by Al Laurie, B. J. Ward, Earl Boen, Frank Welker, Jane Carr, Liz Ward-Land, Nick Guest, Nick Jameson, Paul Lukather, Philip Proctor, Rodger Bumpass, Simon Templeman
- Casting Director: Kris Zimmerman
- Voice Director: Gordon Hunt
- Recording Engineer: Devon Bowman
- Test Manager: Billy Mitchell
- Lead Tester: Christopher Bruno
- Testers: Brian Burke, Kip Ernst, Nick Glory, Joseph Greer, Winston Ishigo, Mathew Kutaka, Reid Manchester, Mark Medeiros, Christopher Pappalardo, Joe Quadara, Jacob Rohrer, Gregg Stephens, Benny Ventura
- Hero: Rob Dyer
- Our Boy: John Kavanagh
- LoK Franchise Executive Producer: Andrew Bennett
- IT Manager: Brian Venturi
- IT Guys: David Rhea, Andre Rodriguez, Phil Deering, Rob Fitzpatrick
- Special Thanks: Ben Walker, Rita Fovenyessy, Steve "Big D" Goebel, April Schilling, Mike Khoury, Chris Thompson, Jeremy Bredow, Suzanne Cooper Shaw, Kristin Willis, Alex Ness
- Eidos Interactive:
- Vice President of Marketing: Paul Baldwin
- Marketing Director: Sean Amann
- Product Manager: Matt Gorman
- PR Manager: Michelle Seebach
- PR Specialist: Kjell Vistad
- Web Master: Kim Pendleton
- Web Designer: Frankie Palmer
System Requirements and Version
- Pentium III 450 MHz or equivalent processor
- Windows 98 and newer
- 128MB RAM
- DirectX 8.1 or higher
- DirectX 8.1 compliant sound card
- DirectX 8.1 compliant 3D accelerator card w/16MB VRAM
- 1.8 GB uncompressed hard drive space
- 8X CD-ROM drive
- Keyboard and mouse
- Pentium III 600 MHz Processor
- Windows 98 and newer
- 128MB RAM
- DirectX 8.1 or higher
- DirectX 8.1 compliant sound card
- DirectX 8.1 compliant 3D accelerator card w/32 MB VRAM
- 2 GB uncompressed hard drive space
- 24X CD-ROM drive
- Keyboard and mouse
The latest version of Blood Omen 2: Legacy of Kain is version 1.02, released on October 10, 2003. The only other official patch is version 1.01, which was released on April 3, 2002.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 "In A World..." Blood Omen 2 manual. pg9. Crystal Dynamics (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download
- ↑ The Resurrection of Vorador at The Lost Worlds (by Ben Lincoln).
- ↑ Vorador: "It serves. But time is short. The Sarafan's power grows by the day. Soon our every haven will be destroyed. We are facing extinction once again."//Kain: "They thought once before they had destroyed us. Yet you proved them wrong. You created a new race, something I could never do, and from that race, I had my army."//Vorador: "Now we are divided, and dying."//Kain "Then rouse yourself – make more of our kind."//Vorador: "It takes time and energy to create a vampire. I have not the strength. No, as Umah told you, we must kill the Sarafan Lord. When he is dead, their power will crumble. You have come far already, Kain, and proven to be our greatest ally. We must plan our attack." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ Umah: "That you awoke at all is a miracle. When we found you, there was but the barest thread of life left in you. We nurtured it, fed it, and now you rise and walk again."//Kain: "And what is this place?"//Umah: "You are in the city of Meridian, capital of the Land of Nosgoth, the land you once sought to conquer and rule. Tell me, since you remember your name, do you also remember your nature?"//Kain: "Of course." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ Umah: "We are the Cabal, the vampire resistance. We work to undermine the Sarafan at every turn. But we are losing. With the new magic they employ, the Glyph Magic, they are able to find us and kill us. Our numbers are dwindling. Without help, we will not survive. We need you, Kain." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ Kain: "This city is a labyrinth."//Umah: "All the better for a hunting ground." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 My Visit to Crystal Dynamics at The Lost Worlds (by Ben Lincoln)
- ↑ Blood Omen 2 Dialogue/Script at Nosgothic Realm.
- ↑ Blood Omen 2 Dialogue/Script at Dark Chronicle (fan website).
- ↑ Kain: "This nobleman turned vampire is seeking to regain control of the land of Nosgoth. This is his story." Blood Omen 2 manual. pg10-11/14-15. Crystal Dynamics (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download
- ↑ Umah: "This sensuous vampire is a lieutenant in The Cabal, the vampire resistance in Meridian. She acts as both guide and friend to Kain." Blood Omen 2 manual. pg10-11/14-15. Crystal Dynamics (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download
- ↑ Sarafan Lord: "Kain’s most powerful nemesis is the evil warlord who controls Nosgoth’s capital city, Meridian. It was Sarafan Lord himself who, 200 years ago, resurrected the Sarafan armies and defeated Kain." Blood Omen 2 manual. pg10-11/14-15. Crystal Dynamics (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download
- ↑ Vorador: "This old "friend" of Kain’s leads the vampire resistance. Kain doesn’t completely trust Vorador and reluctantly accepts his help. Throughout the quest, Vorador will offer Kain aid and direction, sometimes using The Whisper, a natural ability of vampires to speak to each other across great distances." Blood Omen 2 manual. pg10-11/14-15. Crystal Dynamics (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Question and Answer with Jen, Richard, and Kyle at The Lost Worlds
- ↑ Faustus: "Well, well, our Lord was correct. You are alive. Do you remember me, Kain, who served you so well?"//Kain(V/O): "It was Faustus. One of the legionnaires of my army of vampires. An indifferent soldier, but now, a traitor to our race."//Kain: "Faustus. It's true, then. I hardly believed it. Vampires have turned against their own kind."//Faustus: "What is our kind? In serving the Sarafan, I have protection, I have power. And who better to hunt down a vampire than a more powerful vampire? History is written by the winners, Kain. That is my kind."//Kain: "How many of us have been destroyed by the Sarafan? How many have been brought to their deaths by you?"//Faustus: "I care not for those destined to die. I don't weep for them, and I won't weep for you."//Kain: "Look around you, Faustus. Does your victory seem so assured now?"//Faustus: "A fleeting setback. Our Lord knows of your presence. He beat you before, and he will bury you now."//Kain: "But you will never know how it ends, Faustus, for I will bury you first of all." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ Faustus: "The first of the enemy vampires Kain meets, Faustus dwells in the Smuggler’s Den." Blood Omen 2 manual. pg10-11/14-15. Crystal Dynamics (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download
- ↑ Marcus: "Another of the traitorous vampires working with The Sarafan, Marcus can be found in the Upper City. Beware his psychic abilities." Blood Omen 2 manual. pg10-11/14-15. Crystal Dynamics (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download
- ↑ Kain: "Your master knows his days are numbered. I might have spared your life by asking that you join me, but I learned that lesson two hundred years ago. You arranged the ambush that destroyed my army. You sold yourself to our enemy." // Sebastian: "I dealt the blow that cost you the war. Glorious, was it not? So many killed, so quickly. And all my doing." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ Sebastian: "An old vampire acquaintance of Kain’s, Sebastian is now helping The Sarafan. Seek him out in the Industrial Quarter." Blood Omen 2 manual. pg10-11/14-15. Crystal Dynamics (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download
- ↑ Kain(V/O:): "Here, in this cursed place, was my finest warrior. The Sarafan fell before him by the score. Together, he and I were invincible. Until –"//Kain: "Magnus. The traitor. Is this your reward for betraying me to the Sarafan Lord?"//Magnus: "Sire, I did not –"//Kain: "You left my camp in the night to join with my enemy, like all the others."//Magnus: "Sire, no. I wanted only to serve you. I thought, in my pride, I would strike a blow that would end the war. I went to kill the Sarafan Lord, alone. I was your champion."//Kain: "You never returned."//Magnus: "I failed you. I tried to kill him. Even now I cannot remember how he defeated me. I was stuck down, helpless at his feet. And then through his foul magic he took my mind, and transported me here, to this hellhole. Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ Magnus: "This vampire has gone mad inside the Eternal Prison. Kain will have to defeat him before he can leave." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual. pg10/p15 (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Magnus: "This vampire has gone mad inside the Eternal Prison. Kain will have to defeat him before he can leave."Official Blood Omen 2 site Vampires page
- ↑ The Seer: "No one knows the origins of this mysterious witch living in the Canyons." Blood Omen 2 manual. pg10-11/14-15. Crystal Dynamics (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download
- ↑ Vorador: "There is a secret way out of the city. I will show it to you. You may follow a canyon that leads north to her abode. The way will not be easy. Strange beasts roam outside the city, preying on travelers. The people call them demons." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ (~Kain sees Umah standing on a ledge above him.~) Umah: "Welcome to the Slums, Kain. We are in the oldest and most decrepit part of the city, where few people dare to come. A perfect place to train you."//Kain: "Train me? Do you take me for a dog?"//Umah: "Your memory has been shattered, and your body has lain dormant for two hundred years. What skills you had must be recovered before you can be of any use to the Cabal. You must learn to fight, and to survive." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ Umah: "Welcome to one of the “glories” of our fair city, the Smuggler's Den. As squalid as you found the Slums, you will find this place even more offensive. Rogues and thieves rule the streets, and of course the Sarafan too have their own dealings here. You may expect small help from the inhabitants, and more trouble." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ Kain: "What are the defenses here?"//Umah: "The heaviest of all the Sarafan outposts. They control all trade and all travel to and from Meridian."//Kain: "The Sarafan are nothing compared to what I have faced, and destroyed."//Umah: "Don't be arrogant. Their finest warriors will be waiting within. The Glyph Knights are deadly."//Kain: "We shall see." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2. (Eidos Interactive). PlayStation 2. (March 19, 2002) Transcript.
- ↑ The Heads-Up Display: "The Head's-Up Display (HUD) appears in the upper-left corner of the screen. This is where you can monitor Kain's current life force, his vampiric Lore, the visibility of enemies, and his Rage Meter. 1)Blood Meter/Life Force ~ 2)Lore Meter ~ 3)Rage Meter ~ 4)Dark Gift Indicator ~ 5)Weapon Icon ~" Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual p17. (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Heads-Up Display aka HUD. Prima Games. Prima's Official Strategy Guide to Blood Omen 2(2002). Page 2. ISBN 0-7615-3774-0
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 BO2 Stealth Page at The Lost Worlds (by Ben Lincoln).
- ↑ Interacting With Objects: "Flipping Switches ~/Opening Doors ~/Climbing Ladders ~/Moveable Blocks ~/Glyph Batteries ~/Obtainable Objects ~"Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual p15-17. (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ "Ways To Kill:" Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual. pg11-13 (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ "Combat Training" Prima Games. Prima's Official Strategy Guide to Blood Omen 2(2002). Page 10. ISBN 0-7615-3774-0
- ↑ Obtainable Objects: "Besides weapons, there are some objects that can be collected by Kain throughout the game. The objects are: 1)Lore Chests/Coffers ~ 2)Vampire Weapon Power-Up Chest ~ 3) Nexus Stone ~"Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual p17. (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Dark Gifts: "In addition to physical superiority, vampires possess Dark Gifts. These are supernatural abilities, with each vampire having unique powers. At the beginning of the game, much of Kain's former power has been weakened during his long hibernation.But he does begin with two Dark Gifts, The Mist Form and Fury Power.//Since only vampires possess Dark Gifts, draining their life force allows Kain to absorb their Dark Gift. As he advances through the game, Kain will gain five more Dark Gifts//Dark Gifts: "Mist ~/Jump ~/Charm ~/Telekinesis ~/Fury ~/Berserk ~/Immolate ~." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual p14-15. (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Mist "Kain has the abilitiy to assume a mist form and become nearly invisible. While standing in a low level of mist, press the (Dark Gift) button to enter Mist form and sneak up on your enemies from behind. If Kain sneaks up behind an enemy whilst in mist form and enters autoface mode, a skull graphic will appear above the enemy's head. When this happens, press the (Action) or left analogue stick toward the enemy + the (Action) button to execute one of Kain's special Stealth Kills. You can also use Mist form to escape from a group of pursuing enemies. However, if you move Kain in front of an enemy, it will sense Kain and attack." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual. pg14 (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Fury: "This allows Kain to perform a stronger and more powerful attack using claws or weapons. Once Fury has been selected from the Dark Gift menu, block enemy attacks until Kain begins to glow. Then, while still in autoface mode, press the O button to perfom the Fury attack. " Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual. pg15 (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Jump "Kain can use this to jump great distances. Press the (Dark Gift) button to enter Jump mode. Translucent after-images of Kain will appear showing where you can jump to. Use the left analog stick to move the cursor around. If the cursor turns purple, the jump is possible; red means Kain can jump attack an enemy; and white indicates that a jump is not possible. Press the (Dark Gift) button again when you are ready to execute the jump. Use Jump mode when you see a ledge that is too far to reach by normal means." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual. pg14 (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Charm: "All non-aggressive characters can be charmed with this power. In Charm mode, Kain is able to take complete control of another character and move him or her around a certain distance. Press the Dark Gift button to enter Charm mode and...aim the cursor at the character you want to control. Once a character is selected, press the Dark Gift button again to Charm. Kain can use this power to make characters do things that would not normally be able to do." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual. pg15 (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Berserk: "This allows Kain to perform a speed attack. Once Berserk has been selected from the Dark Gift menu and Kain enters autoface mode, he will begin to glow. Then, press the button to perform the Berserk attack in autoface mode" Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual. pg15 (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Telekinesis "Kain can activate certain switches using only his mind. Press the (Dark Gift) button to enter Telekinesis mode and then use the left analog stick to aim the cursor at what you want to activate. Once a switch is selected, press the (Dark Gift) button again to activate the switch." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual. pg15 (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Immolate "Kain can destroy some enemies without touching them. The Immolate power, when cast upon the enemy, will cause it to light on fire. With Immolate selected and the Rage meter fully powered up, autoface an enemy and press the Dark Gift button to Immolate it." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual. pg15 (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ Picking Up/Using Weapons "Throughout the game, Kain will encounter a variety of different weapons. After dispatching these enemies, Kain can pick up their weapon and use it in battle. In some levels, you will also find weapons lying on the ground. Kain can only hold one weapon at a time and weapons will eventually break after being used repeatedly." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual p14-15. (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ The Heads-Up Display - 5)Weapon Icon: "Appearing under Kain's Rage Meter, this icon shows the weapon Kain is using. The icon glows red when it is close to breaking." Crystal Dynamics. Blood Omen 2 manual p17. (Eidos Interactive). (2002) Download.
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 45.2 Blood Omen 2 Designer Diary #2(Page 1) at GameSpot (by Mike Ellis)
- ↑ Blood Omen 2 Designer Diary #3(Page 2) at GameSpot (by Dellekamp Siefert)
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 Legacy of Kain: Defiance Designer Diary at GameSpot (by Richard Lemarchand)
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 Blood Omen 2 Designer Diary #1(Page 3) at GameSpot (by Bret Robbins and Mike Ellis)
- ↑ 49.0 49.1 49.2 Blood Omen 2 Q&A at GameSpot (by Sam Newman)
- ↑ Blood Omen 2 Technical Information at The Lost Worlds (by Ben Lincoln).
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 Blood Omen 2 Designer Diary #1(Page 1) at GameSpot (by Steve Ross)
- ↑ Soul Reaver 2 Q&A(page 1) at GameSpot (by Amy Hennig)
- ↑ Chakan and Sirens at The Lost Worlds (by Ben Lincoln).
- ↑ 54.0 54.1 Blood Omen 2 at The Lost Worlds (by Ben Lincoln).
- ↑ Blood Omen 2- Deleted Levels at The Lost Worlds (by Ben Lincoln).
- ↑ 56.0 56.1 Legacy of Kain at Wikipedia.
- ↑ 57.0 57.1 The Legacy of Kain Series: Blood Omen 2 at Dark Chronicle (by Marie Tryhorn).
- ↑ Blood Omen 2 - offficial name at the Eidos Forums (by Paradoks).